Yesterday we looked at the pre WWII discovery of dark matter. Today we’ll be focusing on the post WWII discovery and how it pretty much caused a paradigm shift in how we understood dark matter.

“The missing link in cosmology is the nature of dark matter and dark energy.”
- Stephen Hawking

Vera Rubin, an American astronomer, was studying the Andromeda Galaxy (NGC 224). She analysed the spectra of stars within this galaxy to measure their rotational velocities and spotted an anomaly.


I’ve decided to abandon the chapter wise structure I was using for all my previous posts; I will now just write about topics that interest me. I’ve also decided to make each blog post much shorter.

Today I’ve decided to do dark matter. It is basically a buzz word in sci-fi and even in Science itself. It’s been around for quite a while but we know so little about it. So what exactly is dark matter?

“Dark Matter is everywhere. In this room. Everywhere”
- Fabiola Gianotti

It truly is fascinating that we know nothing about dark matter even…


This is going to be a *very* short post but a very useful one nonetheless. HR Diagrams are extremely important in Astronomy and Astrophysics; they can be likened to the Astronomer’s Periodic Table. Well… the Astronomers’ Periodic Table would be the actual Periodic Table but you get what I mean.

And no! HR Diagrams do not stand for Human Resource Diagrams.

“Just what future the designer of the universe has provided for the souls of men I do not know, I cannot prove. But I find that the whole order of nature confirms my confidence that, if it is…


Despite stars being non-living things, they too have a lifecycle just like us humans and pretty much every other organism on the planet. However their lifecycle is a bit funky.

There are different forks in their lifecycle and a star doesn’t progress to the next stage based on age like how we do. The entire lifecycle a star goes through is based on their mass.

Stars have a lifecycle much like animals. They get born, they grow, they go through a definite internal development, and finally they die, to give back the material of which they are made so…


Well I don’t mean to interrupt the chapter on stars but I really feel like covering a few more important topics in Maths might actually be really helpful.

Today we’ll be doing probability. I personally hate the topic a lot, mainly because it seems kind of counter-intuitive and confusing but in reality the principles of Probability are quite fundamental.

Now by the end of this post, I guarantee that you will not be able to win a jackpot at a Las Vegas casino but you will end up walking away with some knowledge of basic probability.

“Probability theory is…


Well well well… we’re at one of the best topics in Astrophysics in my opinion. Stars are absolutely fascinating, they look small specks in the sky, smaller than a thumbtack… yet they’re huge balls of plasma, often times having a radius of thousands of kilometers, yet our understanding of stars is very minute, we have a long way to go so buckle up.(Also I’m very sorry for not posting in quite a while, I’ve been extremely busy with schoolwork.) Stars are so cool that the logo of Project Bluestar is a Star!!!

“The Nitrogen in our DNA. The Calcium…


Coordinates is something we learn in middle school that sticks with us for quite a lot of time but what exactly are their applications? What use do we get from plotting points on an x-y coordinate system and how exactly do they help us? We’re going to find that out today

I think the universe is pure geometry — basically, a beautiful shape twisting around and dancing over space-time.

Antony Garrett List

x-y coordinate systems

While it may seem fundamental, we might as well cover the basics of an x-y coordinate system just for revision. …


Yes finally, we’re going to start with something Astrophysics related! Now before we delve in, I’m legally obligated to tell you that this is a point of no return.

During the course of this article, you will be exposed to the prettiest of pictures and the most interesting facts. In fact your mind is probably not going to comprehend what will be covered because it’s just — mind blowing. Let’s go!

“The size and age of the Cosmos are beyond ordinary human understanding. Lost somewhere between immensity and eternity is our tiny planetary home.”

Carl Sagan


I suppose this is kind of an Astrophysics topic? Well, I would say it is. Now distances seem kind of bland and boring but let me tell you they are absolutely crucial when it comes to understanding the cosmos.

“Being apart teaches us how to be together”

No, I’m not talking about that kind of distance, or wait maybe I am. Either way, when it comes to distances in space, it’s a bit weird. We don’t stick with the SI unit for length anymore. We don’t use meters, and probably for good reason as well.

Now things in space…


Now, I just want to start by saying that this topic isn’t exactly an Astrophysics topic but there is a reason as to why this is one of the first topics taught in any Physics class, it is used extensively in almost every field of Physics. I personally really enjoy this topic and it’s quite crucial that you understand it. Apart from being one of the foundational topics, you can use dimensional analysis on your answer for any Physics problem to see if you have the right answer.

Woahhh dimensional analysis… are we going to be looking at like…

Madhav Menon

I’m a 15 year old who adores Science, from the micro that is Particle Physics to the macro that is Astrophysics, everything interests me

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